The English word dog can be traced back to the Old English docga, a "powerful breed of canine". The term may derive from Proto-Germanic *dukkōn,
represented in Old English finger-docce ("finger-muscle"). Due to the linguistically archaic structure of the word, the term dog may ultimately derive
from the earliest layer of Proto-Indo-European vocabulary, reflecting the role of the dog as the earliest domesticated animal.
The English word hound is cognate to other Germanic terms, including German Hund, Dutch hond, common Scandinavian hund, Icelandic hundur which,
though referring to a specific breed group in English, means "dog" in general in the other Germanic languages. Hound itself is derived from the Proto-Indo
-European *kwon-, which is also the direct root of the Greek κυων (kuōn) and the indirect root of the Latin canis through the variant form *kani-.
In breeding circles, a male canine is referred to as a dog, while a female canine is called a bitch. The father of a litter is called the sire, and the mother of
a litter is called the dam. Offspring are generally called pups or puppies until they are about a year old. A group of offspring is a litter. The process of
birth is whelping. Many terms are used for dogs that are not purebred.
The English word dog, in common usage, refers to the domestic pet dog, Canis lupus familiaris. The species was originally classified as Canis familiaris
and Canis familiarus domesticus by Linnaeus in 1758. In 1993, dogs were reclassified as a subspecies of the gray wolf, Canis lupus, by the
Smithsonian Institution and the American Society of Mammalogists. "Dog" is sometimes used to refer collectively to any mammal belonging to the family
Canidae (as in "the dog family"), such as wolves, foxes, and coyotes. Some members of the family have "dog" in their common names, such as the
Raccoon Dog and the African Wild Dog. A few animals have "dog" in their common names but are not canids, such as the prairie dog and the dog fish.
Origin and evolution
Main article: Origin of the domestic dog
Based on DNA evidence, the wolf ancestors of modern dogs diverged from other wolves about 100,000 years ago, and dogs were
domesticated from those wolf ancestors about 15,000 years ago. This date would make dogs the first species to be domesticated by humans.
Evidence suggests that dogs were first domesticated in East Asia, and some of the peoples who entered North America took dogs with them
As humans migrated around the planet, a variety of dog forms migrated with them. The agricultural revolution and subsequent urban revolution
led to an increase in the dog population and a demand for specialization. These circumstances would provide the opportunity for selective breeding
to create specialized working dogs and pets.
Ancestry and history of domestication
Main article: Origin of the domestic dog
This ancient mosaic, likely Roman, shows a large dog with a collar hunting a lion.
In Jan van Eyck's famous Arnolfini Portrait (1434). Care was taken to include the couple's little pet dog.Molecular systematics indicate that the
domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) descends from one or more populations of wild wolves (Canis lupus). As reflected in the nomenclature, dogs
are descended from the wolf and are able to interbreed with wolves.
The relationship between human and canine has deep roots. Converging archaeological and genetic evidence indicate a time of domestication
in the late Upper Paleolithic close to the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary, between 17,000 and 14,000 years ago. Fossil bone morphologies and
genetic analysis of current and ancient dog and wolf populations have not yet been able to conclusively determine whether all dogs descend from
a single domestication event, or whether dogs were domesticated independently in more than one location. Domesticated dogs may have interbred
with local populations of wild wolves on several occasions (a process known in genetics as introgression).
The earliest dog fossils, two crania from Russia and a mandible from Germany, date from 13,000 to 17,000 years ago. Their likely ancestor is the
large northern Holarctic wolf, Canis lupus lupus. Remains of smaller dogs from Mesolithic (Natufian) cave deposits in the Middle East, dated to
around 12,000 years ago, have been interpreted as descendants of a lighter Southwest Asian wolf, Canis lupus Arabs. Rock art and skeletal
remains indicate that by 14,000 years ago, dogs were present from North Africa across Eurasia to North America. Dog burials at the Mesolithic
cemetery of Svaerdborg in Denmark suggest that in ancient Europe dogs were valued companions.
Dogs on the Coat of Arms of the Canary Islands, which in ancient times had a dense population of an endemic breed of large and fierce dogs.
Genetic analyses have so far yielded divergent results. Vilà, Savolainen, and colleagues (1997) concluded that the ancestors of dogs split off
from other wolves between 75,000 and 135,000 years ago, while a subsequent analysis by Savolainen et al. (2002) indicated a "common origin
from a single gene pool for all dog populations" between 40,000 and 15,000 years ago in East Asia. Verginelli et al. (2005), however, suggest
both sets of dates must be reevaluated in light of recent findings showing that poorly calibrated molecular clocks have systematically overestimated
the age of geologically recent events. On balance, and in agreement with the archaeological evidence, 15,000 years ago is the most likely time
for the wolf-dog divergence.
The Soviets have attempted to domesticate the fox, mentioned in the article Tame Silver Fox, and were able to do so in just nine generations, or
less than a human lifetime. This also resulted in other changes, including color, which became black, white, or black and white. They also developed
year-round breeding ability, curled-up tails, and droopy ears.
The rapidity of this change has suggested to researchers a scenario of the origin of the domestic dog. Primitive people lived on the edge of survival
which involved occasional food shortages, and would not have taken wolf pups and made pets of them. However, wolves would raid garbage dumps
near human habitations. Wolves have a flight distance which they keep between themselves and a threatening creature. When a dump was
approached by humans, some wolves would run a greater distance from the dump than others. Those that ran the shortest distance would return
first, and obtain the greatest amount of food.
This set up a selective breeding situation that resulted in a strain of wolves having shorter and shorter flight distances, until they were eventually
comfortable near humans, having domesticated themselves, so to speak. At that point, they were tolerated by humans, so long as they were also
useful, in such ways as catching rats or driving away other predators. In time, other uses, such as hunting, were found for them. The Farm Fox
Experiment Evolution of Dogs
Development of dog breeds
Main article: Dog breeds
Dogs have been bred into a variety of shapes, colors and sizes. Variation can be wide even within a breed, as with these Cavalier King Charles
Spaniels.There are numerous dog breeds, with over 800 being recognized by various kennel clubs worldwide. Many dogs, especially outside the
United States of America and Western Europe, belong to no recognized breed. A few basic breed types have evolved gradually during the
domesticated dog's relationship with humans over the last 10,000 or more years, but all modern breeds are of relatively recent derivation. Many
of these are the product of a deliberate process of artificial selection. Because of this, some breeds are highly specialized, and there is
extraordinary morphological diversity across different breeds. Despite these differences, dogs are able to distinguish dogs from other kinds of animal.
The definition of a dog breed is a matter of some controversy. Depending on the size of the original founding population, closed gene pool breeds
can have problems with inbreeding, specifically due to the founder effect. Dog breeders are increasingly aware of the importance of population
genetics and of maintaining diverse gene pools. Health testing and new DNA tests can help avoid problems, by providing a replacement for
natural selection. Without selection, inbreeding and closed gene pools can increase the risk of severe health or behavioral problems. Some
organizations define a breed more loosely, such that an individual may be considered of one breed as long as 75% of its parentage is of that
breed. These considerations affect both pets and the show dogs entered in dog shows. Even prize-winning purebred dogs sometimes possess
crippling genetic defects due to founder effect or inbreeding. These problems are not limited to purebred dogs and can affect cross-breed
populations. The behavior and appearance of a dog of a particular breed can be predicted to a degree, while mixed-breed dogs show a
broader range of innovative appearance and behavior.
This puppy is a mix of many breeds.Mixed-breed dogs or Mongrels (also called "mutts") are dogs that do not belong to specific breeds, being
mixtures more than two in variant percentages. Mixed breed dogs and purebred dogs are both suitable as companions, pets, working dogs,
or competitors in dog sports. Sometimes different breed dogs are deliberately bred, to create cross-breeds such as the Cockapoo, a mixture
of Cocker Spaniel and Miniature Poodle. Such deliberate crosses may display some degree of hybrid vigor and other desirable traits, but may
or may not inherit any of the desired traits of their parents, such as temperament or a particular color or coat. Without genetic testing of the
parents, the crosses can end up inheriting genetic defects that occur in both parental breeds.
A breed is a group of animals that possesses a set of inherited characteristics that distinguishes it from other animals within the same species.
Deliberately crossing two or more breeds is also a manner of establishing new breeds, but it is only a breed when offspring will reliably
demonstrate that particular set of characteristics and qualities.
The Bulldog is well known for its short muzzle and saggy skin on its face
Breed popularity varies widely over time and in different parts of the world and different segments of the population. Counting by American
Kennel Club (AKC) registration (not by licensing registration or by United Kennel Club (UKC) registration, which could present different statistics),
the Labrador Retriever has been the United States's most commonly registered breed of dog since 1991. However, even within parts of the
United States, popularity varies; for example, in 2005 the most-registered breed in New York City was the Poodle while the Yorkshire Terrier was
the second-most-registered breed in Houston. However, animal shelters in many parts of the United States report that the most-commonly
available dog for adoption is the American Pit Bull Terrier or pit bull-type mixes, making up as much as 20% of dogs available for adoption,
none of which would be registered with the AKC. Two decades ago, in 1983, the AKC's top two registered breeds were the American
Cocker Spaniel and the Poodle.
In the United Kingdom, The Kennel Club reports that the most-registered breed from at least 1999 to 2005 was the Labrador Retriever. It
rounds out the top three for 1999 to 2005 with the German Shepherd Dog, also popular in the US, and the English Cocker Spaniel ,
which is no longer in the top ten in the US. In the UK, a national dog adoption and rescue service indicates that the most common breed
appearing in shelters is the Greyhound followed by the Staffordshire Bull Terrier.
Differences from wolves
Compared to equally sized wolves, dogs tend to have 20% smaller skulls and 10% smaller brains, as well as proportionately smaller teeth
than other canid species. Dogs require fewer calories to function than wolves. Their diet of human refuse in antiquity made the large brains and
jaw muscles needed for hunting unnecessary. It is thought by certain experts that the dog's limp ears are a result of atrophy of the jaw muscles.
The skin of domestic dogs tends to be thicker than that of wolves, with some Inuit tribes favouring the former for use as clothing due to its greater
resistance to wear and tear in harsh weather. Unlike wolves, but like coyotes, domestic dogs have sweat glands on their paw pads. The paws
of a dog are half the size of those of a wolf, and their tails tend to curl upwards, another trait not found in wolves.
Dogs tend to be poorer than wolves and coyotes at observational learning, being more responsive to instrumental conditioning. Feral dogs show
little of the complex social structure or dominance hierarchy present in wolf packs. For dogs, other members of their kind are of no help in locating
food items, and are more like competitors. Feral dogs are primarily scavengers, with studies showing that unlike their wild cousins, they are poor
ungulate hunters, having little impact on wildlife populations where they are sympatric. Free ranging pet dogs however are more prone to predatory
behaviour toward wild animals. Feral dogs have been reported to be effective hunters of reptiles in the Galapagos islands. Despite common belief,
domestic dogs can be monogamous. Breeding in feral packs can be, but does not have to be restricted to a dominant alpha pair (despite common
belief, such things also occur in wolf packs). Male dogs are unusual among canids by the fact that they mostly seem to play no role in raising their
puppies, and do not kill the young of other females to increase their own reproductive success. Some sources say that dogs differ from wolves and
most other large canid species by the fact that they do not regurgitate food for their young, nor the young of other dogs in the same territory. However,
this difference was not observed in all domestic dogs. Regurgitating of food by the females for the young as well as care for the young by the males
has been observed in domestic dogs, dingos as well as in other feral or semi-feral dogs. Regurgitating of food by the females and direct choosing of
only one mate has been observed even in those semi-feral dogs of direct domestic dog ancestry. Also regurgitating of food by males has been
observed in free-ranging domestic dogs.
Dogs display much greater tractability than tame wolves, and are generally much more responsive to coercive techniques involving fear, aversive
stimuli and force than wolves, which are most responsive toward positive conditioning and rewards. Unlike tame wolves, dogs tend to respond
more to voice than hand signals. Although they are less difficult to control than wolves, they can be comparatively more difficult to teach than
a motivated wolf.
Main article: Dog anatomy
See also: Dog health
Modern dog breeds show more variation in size, appearance, and behavior than any other domestic animal. Within the range of extremes,
dogs generally share attributes with their wild ancestors, the wolves. Dogs are predators and scavengers, possessing sharp teeth and strong
jaws for attacking, holding, and tearing their food. Although selective breeding has changed the appearance of many breeds, all dogs retain
basic traits from their distant ancestors. Like many other predatory mammals, the dog has powerful muscles, fused wristbones, a cardiovascular
system that supports both sprinting and endurance, and teeth for catching and tearing. Dogs are more variable in size than any other
domesticated animal. The smallest known dog was a Yorkshire Terrier, who stood only 6.3 cm (2.5 in) at the shoulder, 9.5 cm (3.75 in) along
the head-and-body length and weighed only 113 grams (4 ounces). The largest known dog was an English Mastiff which weighed 155.6 kg
(343 lbs) and was 250 cm (8.2 feet) from the snout to the tail. The tallest dog is a Great Dane that stands 106.7 cm (42.2 in) at the shoulder.
A Greyhound, one of many breeds of sighthoundLike most mammals, dogs are dichromats and have color vision equivalent to red-green
color blindness in humans. Different breeds of dogs have different eye shapes and dimensions, and they also have different retina
configurations. Dogs with long noses have a "visual streak" which runs across the width of the retina and gives them a very wide field of
excellent vision, while those with short noses have an "area centralis" — a central patch with up to three times the density of nerve endings
as the visual streak — giving them detailed sight much more like a human's.
Some breeds, particularly the sighthounds, have a field of vision up to 270° (compared to 180° for humans), although broad-headed breeds
with short noses have a much narrower field of vision, as low as 180°.
According to hypertextbook.com, the frequency range of dog hearing is approximately 40 Hz to 60,000 Hz. Dogs detect sounds as low as
the 16 to 20 Hz frequency range (compared to 20 to 70 Hz for humans) and above 45 kHz (compared to 13 to 20 kHz for humans),
and in addition have a degree of ear mobility that helps them to rapidly pinpoint the exact location of a sound. Eighteen or more muscles
can tilt, rotate and raise or lower a dog's ear. Additionally, a dog can identify a sound's location much faster than a human can, as well as hear
sounds up to four times the distance that humans are able to. Those with more natural ear shapes, like those of wild canids like the fox,
generally hear better than those with the floppier ears of many domesticated species.
Scent hounds, especially the Bloodhound, are bred for their keen sense of smell.Dogs have nearly 220 million smell-sensitive cells over
an area about the size of a pocket handkerchief (compared to 5 million over an area the size of a postage stamp for humans). According
to nhm.org, dogs can sense odors at concentrations nearly 100 million times lower than humans can. According to Dummies.com, the
percentage of the dog's brain that is devoted to analyzing smells is actually 40 times larger than that of a human. Some dog breeds have
been selectively bred for excellence in detecting scents, even compared to their canine brethren.
The highly sensitive nose of a dog.
Domestic dogs often display the remnants of counter-shading, a common natural camouflage pattern. The general theory of countershading
is that an animal that is lit from above will appear lighter on its upper half and darker on its lower half where it will usually be in its own shade.
 This is a pattern that predators can learn to watch for. A countershaded animal will have dark coloring on its upper surfaces and
light coloring below. This reduces the general visibility of the animal. One reminder of this pattern is that many breeds will have the
occasional "blaze", stripe, or "star" of white fur on their chest or undersides.
There are many different shapes for dog tails: straight, straight up, sickle, curled, cork-screw. In some breeds, the tail is traditionally docked
to avoid injuries (especially for hunting dogs). It can happen that some puppies are born with a short tail or no tail in some breeds.
Behavior and intelligence
Further information: Category:Dog training and behavior
Many dogs, such as this American Water Spaniel, have had their natural hunting instincts suppressed or altered to suit human needs.
Many dogs can be trained to skillfully perform tasks not natural to canines, such as in this dog agility competition.Dogs are very social
animals, but their personality and behavior vary with breed as well as how they are treated by their owners and others who come in contact
with them. It is not uncommon for dogs to attack humans and other animals; however, this is usually because of lack of care or improper
upbringing by its owner.
This section includes a list of references or external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks inline citations. Please improve
this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. (August 2008)
Main article: Dog intelligence
Dogs are valued for their intelligence. This intelligence is expressed differently with different breeds and individuals, however. For example,
Border Collies are noted for their ability to learn commands, while other breeds may not be so motivated towards obedience, but instead
show their cleverness in devising ways to steal food or escape from a yard. Being highly adaptable animals themselves, dogs have learned
to do many jobs as required by humans over the generations. Dogs are employed in various roles across the globe, proving invaluable assets
in areas such as search-and-rescue; law enforcement (including attack dogs, sniffer dogs and tracking dogs); guards for livestock, people or
property; herding; Arctic exploration sled-pullers; guiding the blind and acting as a pair of ears for the deaf; assisting with hunting, and a great
many other roles which they may be trained to assume. Most dogs rarely have to deal with complex tasks and are unlikely to learn relatively
complicated activities (such as opening doors) unaided. Some dogs (such as guide dogs for the visually impaired) are specially trained to
recognize and avoid dangerous situations.
Evaluation of a dog's intelligence
The meaning of "intelligence" in general, not only in reference to dogs, is hard to define. Some tests measure problem-solving abilities and
others test the ability to learn in comparison to others of the same age. Defining it for dogs is just as difficult. It is likely that dogs do not have
the ability to premeditate an action to solve a problem.
A mirror test is one possible measure of self-awareness.For example, the ability to learn quickly could be a sign of intelligence. Conversely
it could be interpreted as a sign of a desire to please. In contrast, some dogs who do not learn very quickly may have other talents. An
example is breeds that are not particularly interested in pleasing their owners, such as Siberian Huskies. Huskies are often fascinated
with the myriad of possibilities for escaping from yards, catching small animals, and often figuring out on their own numerous inventive
ways of doing both.
Many owners of livestock guardian breeds believe that breeds like the Great Pyrenees or the Kuvasz are not easily trained because their
stubborn nature prevents them from seeing the point of such commands as “sit” or “down”. Hounds may also suffer from this type of ranking.
These dogs are bred to have more of a "pack" mentality with other dogs and less reliance on a master's direct commands. While they may
not have the same kind of intelligence as a Border Collie, they were not bred to learn and obey commands quickly, but to think for themselves
while trailing game.
A U.S. Army Staff Sgt. and his military working dog wait at a safe house before conducting an assault against insurgents in Buhriz, Iraq on April
10, 2007.Dogs are highly social animals. This can account for their trainability, playfulness, and ability to fit into human households and social
situations. These attributes have earned dogs a unique position in the realm of interspecies relationships despite being one of the most effective,
voracious, and potentially dangerous predators. Dogs and humans at times co-operate in some of the most effective hunting in the animal world;
n that context, dogs are superpredators.
Barking can be used as a form of communication amongst dogs.The loyalty and devotion that dogs demonstrate as part of their natural instincts
as pack animals closely mimics the human idea of love and friendship, leading many dog owners to view their pets as full-fledged family members.
Conversely, dogs seem to view their human companions as members of their pack, and make few, if any, distinctions between their owners and
fellow dogs. Dogs fill a variety of roles in human society and are often trained as working dogs. For dogs that do not have traditional jobs, a wide
range of dog sports provide the opportunity to exhibit their natural skills. In many countries, the most common and perhaps most important role of
dogs is as companions.
Dogs have lived and worked with humans in so many roles that their loyalty has earned them the unique sobriquet "man's best friend", a term
which is used in other languages as well as in Icelandic (“besti vinur mannsins”). However, some cultures consider dogs to be unclean. In some
parts of the world, dogs are raised as livestock to produce dog meat for human consumption. In many places, consumption of dog meat is
discouraged by social convention or cultural taboo.
Main article: Dog communication
Dog communication refers to body movements and sounds dogs use to send signals to other dogs, and other animals (usually humans). Dog
communication comes in a variety of forms. Dogs use certain movements of their bodies and body parts and different vocalizations to send signals.
There are a number of basic ways a dog can communicate. These are movements of the ears, eyes and eyebrows, mouth, head, tail, and entire
body, as well as barks, growls, whines and whimpers, and howls.
Dogs develop their own societies. Puppies participate with their littermates in learning to relate to other dogs. Dogs learn to successfully relate
to other dogs by keeping the peace, rather than by constantly fighting to reestablish this hierarchy.
Main article: Canine reproduction
In domestic dogs, sexual maturity (puberty) begins to happen around age 6 to 12 months for both males and females, although this
can be delayed until up to two years old for some large breeds. Adolescence for most domestic dogs is around 12 to 15 months, beyond
which they are for the most part more adult than puppy. As with other domesticated species, domestication has selectively bred for higher
libido and earlier and more frequent breeding cycles in dogs, than in their wild ancestors. Dogs remain reproductively active until old age.
An Australian Shepherd Puppy Red MerleMost female dogs have their first estrous cycle between 6 and 12 months, although some larger
breeds delay until as late as 2 years. Females experience estrous cycles biannually, during which her body prepares for pregnancy, and at
the peak she will come into estrus, during which time she will be mentally and physically receptive to copulation.
Dogs bear their litters roughly 56 to 72 days after fertilization, with an average of 63 days, although the length of gestation can vary.
An average litter consists of about six puppies, though this number may vary widely based on the breed of dog. Toy dogs generally
produce from one to four puppies in each litter, while much larger breeds may average as many as 12 pups in each litter.
Spaying and neutering
Main article: Spaying and neutering
Neutering (spaying females and castrating males) refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removal of the male's testicles or the female's
ovaries and uterus, in order to eliminate the ability to procreate, and reduce sex drive. Neutering has also been known to reduce aggression
in male dogs, but has been shown to occasionally increase aggression in female dogs.
A wild dog from Sri Lanka nursing her four puppies.Animal control agencies in the United States and the ASPCA advise that dogs not
intended for further breeding should be neutered so that they do not have undesired puppies.
Because of the overpopulation of dogs in some countries, puppies born to strays or as the result of accidental breedings often end up
being killed in animal shelters. Neutering can also decrease or eliminate the risk of hormone-driven diseases such as mammary cancer,
as well as undesired hormone-driven behaviors. However, certain medical problems are more likely after neutering, such as urinary
incontinence in females and prostate cancer in males. The hormonal changes involved with sterilization are likely to somewhat
change the animal's personality, however, and some object to neutering as the sterilization could be carried out without the excision of organs.
It is not essential for a female dog to either experience a heat cycle or have puppies before spaying, and likewise, a male dog does not
need the experience of mating before castration.
Female cats and dogs are seven times more likely to develop mammary tumors if they are not spayed before their first heat cycle.
 Dog food containing soybeans or soybean fractions have been found to contain phytoestrogens in levels that could have biological
effects when ingested longterm.
Gender-preservative surgeries such as vasectomy and tubal ligation are possible, but do not appear to be popular due to the continuation
of gender-specific behaviors and disease risks.
According to the Humane Society of the United States, 3–4 million dogs and cats are put down each year in the United States and many
more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep
overpopulation down. Local humane societies, SPCAs and other animal protection organizations urge people to neuter their pets and to
adopt animals from shelters instead of purchasing them. Several notable public figures have spoken out against animal overpopulation,
including Bob Barker. On his game show, The Price Is Right, Barker stressed the problem at the end of every episode, saying: "Help
control the pet population. Have your pets spayed or neutered." The current host, Drew Carey, makes a similar plea at the conclusion
of each episode.
Working, utility and assistance dogs
Main article: Working dog
Dogs have traditionally been used for a variety of tasks since their domestication by early man. A classic example of the use of dogs for
work is the sheep dog. Dogs have also been used by hunters to flush out game.
Dogs are susceptible to various diseases, ailments, and poisons, some of which affect humans in the same way, others of which are
unique to dogs. Dogs, like all mammals, are also susceptible to heat exhaustion when dealing with high levels of humidity and/or extreme
Infectious diseases commonly associated with dogs include rabies (hydrophobia), canine parvovirus, and canine distemper. Inherited
diseases of dogs can include a wide range from elbow or hip dysplasia and medial patellar luxation to epilepsy and pulmonic stenosis.
Canines can get just about anything a human can get (excluding many infections which are species specific) like hypothyroidism, cancer,
dental disease, heart disease, etc.
Two serious medical conditions affecting dogs are pyometra, affecting unspayed females of all types and ages, and bloat, which affects
the larger breeds or deep chested dogs. Both of these are acute conditions, and can kill rapidly; owners of dogs which may be at risk
should learn about such conditions as part of good animal care.
First generation hybrids (such as this terrier mix) often are healthier than either parent due to the genetic phenomenon of heterosis
or "hybrid vigor".
Common external parasites are various species of fleas, ticks, and mites. Internal parasites include hookworms, tapeworms, roundworms,
and heartworms. See also CVBD (Canine Vector-Borne Diseases).
Common physical disorders
Some breeds of dogs are also prone to certain genetic ailments, such as hip dysplasia, luxating patellas, cleft palate, blindness,
or deafness. Dogs are also susceptible to the same ailments that humans are, including diabetes, epilepsy, cancer, and arthritis.
Gastric torsion and bloat is a dangerous problem in some large-chested breeds.
Main article: Aging in dogs
The typical lifespan of dogs varies widely among breeds. Based on questionnaire surveys of owners in the UK, Denmark, USA, and
Canada, the median longevity of most dog breeds is between 10 and 13 years. The breed with the dubious distinction
of the shortest lifespan (among breeds for which there is a questionnaire survey with a reasonable sample size) is the Dogue de Bordeaux
with a median longevity of about 5.2 years, but several breeds, including Miniature Bull Terrier, Bulldog, Nova Scotia Duck Tolling
Retriever, Bloodhound, Irish Wolfhound, Greater Swiss Mountain Dog, Great Dane, and Mastiff, are nearly as short-lived, with median
longevities between 6 and 7 years. On the other end of the spectrum, the longest-lived breeds, including Toy Poodle, Border Terrier,
Miniature Dachshund, Miniature Poodle, and Tibetan Spaniel, have median longevities between 14 and 15 years. The median longevity
of mixed breed dogs (average of all sizes) is one or more years longer than that of purebred dogs (all breeds averaged).
As a rule of thumb, small breeds are longer-lived than large breeds, but some of the longest lived large breeds have median longevities
nearly as long as those of the shortest lived small breeds, and some of the breeds with the shortest longevities are medium-sized.
"Median longevity" refers to the age at which half the dogs in a population have died and half are still alive. Individual dogs, even in breeds
with low median longevities, may live well beyond the median. The dog widely reported to be the longest-lived on record is "Bluey,"
purportedly born in 1910 in Australia. He died in 1939 at the age of 29.5 years. Bluey is usually identified as an Australian Cattle Dog,
but the first Australian Cattle Dog breed standard was written in 1902, only eight years before Bluey's birth. It is unclear how closely
Bluey was related to the breed as it exists today. The Bluey record is anecdotal and unverified. The longest verified records are
of dogs living to 24 years.
In some areas where dogs and wolves are sympatric, dogs can be a major food source for wolves. Reports from Croatia indicate that dogs
are killed more frequently than sheep. Wolves in Russia apparently limit feral dog populations. In Wisconsin, more compensation has been
paid for dog losses than livestock. Some wolf pairs have been reported to predate on dogs by having one wolf lure the dog out into heavy
brush where the second animal waits in ambush. In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans
and buildings when attacking dogs, to an extent where they have to be beaten off or killed. Coyotes have also been known to attack dogs.
Approximately 3 to 5 pets attacked by coyotes, mostly dogs, are brought into the Animal Urgent Care hospital of South Orange County
(California) each week.
Big cats have been recorded to kill dogs. Leopards in particular are known to have a prediliction for dogs, and have been recorded to kill
and consume them regardless of the dog's size or ferocity. Unlike sympatric leopards, tigers in India seldom prey on dogs, though
in Manchuria, Indochina, Indonesia and Malaysia, tigers are reputed to kill dogs with the same vigour as leopards.
Striped hyenas are major predators of village dogs in Turkmenistan, India and the Caucasus.
There are a great quantity of commercial foods and treats marketed for dogs, and not all are recommended as part of a balanced,
healthy diet.There is some debate as to whether domestic dogs should be classified as omnivores or carnivores, by diet. The classification
in the Order Carnivora does not necessarily mean that a dog's diet must be restricted to meat; unlike an obligate carnivore, such as the cat
family with its shorter small intestine, a dog is neither dependent on meat-specific protein nor a very high level of protein in order to fulfill its
basic dietary requirements. Dogs are able to healthily digest a variety of foods including vegetables and grains, and in fact dogs can
consume a large proportion of these in their diet. Wild canines not only eat available plants to obtain essential amino acids, but also obtain
nutrients from vegetable matter from the stomach and intestinal contents of their herbivorous prey, which they usually consume. Domestic
dogs can survive healthily on a reasonable and carefully designed vegetarian diet, particularly if eggs and milk products are included. Some
sources suggest that a dog fed on a strict vegetarian diet without L-carnitine may develop dilated cardiomyopathy, however, L-carnitine is
found in many nuts, seeds, beans, vegetables, fruits and whole grains. In the wild, dogs can survive on a vegetarian diet
when animal prey is not available. Observation of extremely stressful conditions such as the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race
, and scientific studies of similar conditions has shown that high-protein (approximately 40%) diets including meat help prevent damage
to muscle tissue in dogs and some other mammals. This level of protein corresponds to the percentage of protein found in the wild
dog's diet when prey is abundant; higher levels of protein seem to confer no added benefit.
Dogs frequently eat grass, which is a harmless activity. Explanations abound, but rationales such as that it neutralizes acid, or that dogs eat
grass to induce vomiting to remove unwanted substances from their stomachs, are at best educated guesses. Dogs do vomit more readily
than humans, as part of their typical feeding behavior of gulping down food then regurgitating indigestible material such as bones and fur.
This behavior is typical of pack feeding in the wild, where the most important thing is to get as much of the kill as possible before other consume it all. Individual domestic dogs, however, may be very "picky" eaters, in the absence of this social pressure. Dogs may also appear
to eat grass when they are just running the blades through their mouth to gather information. Their sense of smell and taste may act together
to detect if other animals have walked through their area or urinated on the grass.
Human food. Some foods commonly enjoyed by humans are dangerous to dogs, including chocolate
(Theobromine poisoning), onions, grapes and raisins, some types of gum, certain sweeteners and
Chocolate can contain high amounts of fat and caffeine-like stimulants known as methylxanthines which, ingested in significant amounts,
can potentially produce clinical effects in dogs ranging from vomiting and diarrhea to panting, excessive thirst and urination, hyperactivity,
abnormal heart rhythm, tremors, seizures and even death in severe cases. Typically, the darker the chocolate, the higher the potential for
clinical problems from methylxanthine poisoning. As little as 20 oz (570 g) of milk chocolate—or only 2 oz (57 g) of baking chocolate—can
cause serious problems in a 10-pound (4.5 kg) dog. White chocolate may not have the same potential as darker forms to cause a methylxanthine
poisoning, the high fat content of lighter chocolates could still lead to vomiting and diarrhea, as well as the possible development of life-
threatening pancreatitis, an inflammatory condition of the pancreas.
The acute danger from grapes and raisins was discovered around 2000, and has slowly been publicized since then. The cause is not known.
Small quantities will induce acute renal failure. Sultanas and currants may also be dangerous.
Xylitol, a sugar substitute found in a variety of sugar-free and dietetic cookies, mints and chewing gum is proving highly toxic, even fatal, to dogs.
A toxic dose of roasted macadamia nuts may be as little as one nut per kilogram of body weight in the dog.
Alcoholic beverages pose comparable hazards to dogs as they do to humans, but due to low body weight and lack of alcohol tolerance they
are toxic in much smaller portions. Signs of alcohol intoxication in pets may include vomiting, wobbly gait, depression, disorientation, and.or
hypothermia (low core body temperature.) High doses may result in heart arrhythmias, seizures, tremors, and even death.
Plants. Plants such as caladium, dieffenbachia and philodendron will cause throat irritations that will burn the throat going down as well as
coming up. Hops are particularly dangerous and even small quantities can lead to malignant hyperthermia. Amaryllis, daffodil, english ivy,
iris, and tulip (especially the bulbs) cause gastric irritation and sometimes central nervous system excitement followed by coma, and, in severe
cases, even death. Ingesting foxglove, lily of the valley, larkspur and oleander can be life threatening because the cardiovascular system is affected.
Yew is very dangerous because it affects the nervous system. Immediate veterinary treatment is required for dogs that ingest these.
Household poisons. Many household cleaners such as ammonia, bleach, disinfectants, drain cleaner, soaps, detergents, and other cleaners,
mothballs and matches are dangerous to dogs, as are cosmetics such as deodorants, hair coloring, nail polish and remover, home permanent
lotion, and suntan lotion. Dogs find some poisons attractive, such as antifreeze (automotive coolant), slug and snail bait, insect bait, and rodent
poisons. Antifreeze is insidious to dogs, either puddled or even partly cleaned residue, because of its sweet taste. A dog may pick up antifreeze
on its fur and then lick it off.
Animal feces. Dogs occasionally eat their own feces, or the feces of other dogs and other species if available, such as cats, deer, cows, or horses.
This is known as coprophagia. Some dogs develop preferences for one type over another. There is no definitive reason known, although boredom,
hunger, and nutritional needs have been suggested. Eating cat feces is common, possibly because of the high protein content of cat food. Dogs
eating cat feces from a litter box may lead to Toxoplasmosis. Dogs seem to have different preferences in relation to eating feces. Some are attracted]
to the stools of deer, cows, or horses.
Other risks. Human medications may be toxic to dogs, for example paracetamol/acetaminophen (Tylenol). Zinc toxicity, mostly in the form of the
ingestion of US cents minted after 1982, is commonly fatal in dogs where it causes a severe hemolytic anemia. Some wet dog and cat food
was recalled by Menu Foods in 2007 because it contained a dangerous substance.
Dogs in religion
Main article: Dogs in religion
Dogs have played a role in many religious traditions, including ancient Egyptian religion, Chinese religion, Hinduism, Christianity, and Islam.
Canis lupus familiaris
These are INVALID scientific names for historical interest only:
aegyptius (Linnaeus, 1758), alco (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), americanus (Gmelin, 1792), anglicus (Gmelin, 1792), antarcticus (Gmelin, 1792),
aprinus (Gmelin, 1792), aquaticus (Linnaeus, 1758), aquatilis (Gmelin, 1792), avicularis (Gmelin, 1792), borealis (C. E. H. Smith, 1839),
brevipilis (Gmelin, 1792), cursorius (Gmelin, 1792), domesticus (Linnaeus, 1758), extrarius (Gmelin, 1792), ferus (C. E. H. Smith, 1839),
fricator (Gmelin, 1792), fricatrix (Linnaeus, 1758), fuillus (Gmelin, 1792), gallicus (Gmelin, 1792), glaucus (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), graius
(Linnaeus, 1758), grajus (Gmelin, 1792), hagenbecki (Krumbiegel, 1950), haitensis (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), hibernicus (Gmelin, 1792),
1792), leporarius (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), major (Gmelin, 1792),mastinus (Linnaeus, 1758), melitacus (Gmelin, 1792), melitaeus (Linnaeus,
1758), minor (Gmelin, 1792), molossus (Gmelin, 1792), mustelinus (Linnaeus, 1758), obesus (Gmelin, 1792), orientalis (Gmelin, 1792), pacificus
(C. E. H. Smith, 1839), plancus (Gmelin, 1792), pomeranus (Gmelin, 1792), sagaces (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), sanguinarius (C. E. H. Smith,
1839), sagax (Linnaeus, 1758), scoticus (Gmelin, 1792), sibiricus (Gmelin, 1792), suillus( C. E. H. Smith, 1839), terraenovae (C. E. H. Smith,
1839), terrarius (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), turcicus (Gmelin, 1792), urcani (C. E. H. Smith, 1839), variegatus (Gmelin, 1792), venaticus Gmelin,
1792), vertegus (Gmelin, 1792)
The dog (Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated subspecies of the gray wolf, a mammal of the Canidae family of the order Carnivora.
The term encompasses both feral and pet varieties and is also sometimes used to describe wild canids of other subspecies or species.
The domestic dog has been one of the most widely kept working and companion animals in human history, as well as being a food source
in some cultures. There are estimated to be 400 million dogs in the world.
The dog has developed into hundreds of varied breeds. Height measured to the withers ranges from a few inches in the Chihuahua to a few
feet in the Irish Wolfhound; color varies from white through grays (usually called blue) to black, and browns from light (tan) to dark ("red" or
"chocolate") in a wide variation of patterns; and, coats can be very short to many centimeters long, from coarse hair to something akin to
wool, straight or curly, or smooth. It is common for most breeds to shed this coat, however non-shedding breeds are also popular.
^ Wozencraft, W. C. (16 November 2005). Wilson, D. E., and Reeder, D. M. (eds). ed.. Mammal Species of the World (3rd edition ed.). Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-801-88221-4. http://www.bucknell.edu/msw3/browse.asp?id=14000752.
^ a b c d e f g h Coppinger, Ray (2001). Dogs: a Startling New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution. New York: Scribner. p. 352. ISBN 0684855305.
^ The Complete dog book : the photograph, history, and official standard of every breed admitted to AKC registration, and the selection, training, breeding, care, and feeding of pure-bred dogs. Publisher New York: Howell Book House, 1992. ISBN 0876054645
^ "Domestic PetDog Classified By Linnaeus In 1758 As Canis Familiaris And Canis Familiarus Domesticus". www.encyclocentral.com. http://www.encyclocentral.com/23497-Domestic_Pet_Dog_Classified_By_Linnaeus_In_1758_As_Canis_
Familiaris_And_Canis_Familiarus_Domesticus.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-18.
^ Seebold, Elmar (2002). Kluge. Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. Berlin/New York: Walter de Gruyter. p. 207. ISBN 3110174731.
^ Mallory, J.P. (1989). In Search of the Indo-Europeans: Language, Archaeology and Myth, page 119. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0500276161
^ "The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition.". www.bartleby.com. http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE259.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
^ All about dog breeding for quality and soundness, Jean Gould. Publisher London: Pelham Books, 1978. ISBN 0720710642
^ Linnaeus, Carolus (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis.. 1 (10th edition ed.). Holmiae (Laurentii Salvii). p. 38.
http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/726931. Retrieved on 8 September 2008.
^ ITIS Standard Report Page: Canis familiarus domesticus
^ Vila, Carles; Carles Vila, Peter Savolainen, Jesus E. Maldonado, Isabel R. Amorim, John E. Rice, Rodney L. Honeycutt, Keith A. Crandall, Joakim Lundeberg, Wayne, Robert F. (1997-01-30; accepted 1997-04-14).
"Multiple and ancient origins of the domestic dog" (PDF). Science 276: 1687–1689. doi:10.1126/science.276.5319.1687. PMID 9180076. http://www.mnh.si.edu/GeneticsLab/StaffPage/MaldonadoJ/PublicationsCV/Science_Dog_Paper.pdf. Retrieved on 9 December 2006.
^ Lindblad-Toh K, Wade CM, Mikkelsen TS, et al (December 2005). "Genome sequence, comparative analysis and haplotype structure of the domestic dog". Nature 438 (7069): 803–19. doi:10.1038/nature04338. PMID 16341006. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7069/abs/nature04338.html.
^ McGourty, Christine (2002-11-22). "Origin of dogs traced". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/2498669.stm. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
^ a b Savolainen, Peter; Ya-ping Zhang, Jing Luo, Joakim Lundeberg, and Thomas Leitner (2002-11-22). "Genetic Evidence for an East Asian Origin of Domestic Dogs". Science 298 (5598): 1610–3. doi:10.1126/science.1073906.
^ Verginelli F, Capelli C, Coia V, et al (December 2005). "Mitochondrial DNA from prehistoric canids highlights relationships between dogs and South-East European wolves". Mol. Biol. Evol. 22 (12): 2541–51. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi248. PMID 16120801.
^ The natural history of the dog, Richard and Alice Fiennes. London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1968. ISBN 0297764551
^ Shook, Larry (1995). The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog. New York: Ballantine. pp. 57–72. ISBN 0-345-38439-3.
^ Shook, Larry (1995). The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog. New York: Ballantine. pp. 13–34. ISBN 0-345-38439-3.
^ Koerner, Brendan I. (2005-01-08). "Why Americans Love Labrador retrievers". Slate Magazine Online. http://www.slate.com/id/2122298/. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
^ "Labrador Retriever Tops According to AKC's 2004 Registration Statistics". American Kennel Club. 2005-01-12. http://www.akc.org/news/index.cfm?article_id=2389. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
^ "Top Breeds By City". American Kennel Club. http://www.akc.org/reg/topdogsbycity.cfm. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
^ "Pit Bull Cruelty". American Society for the Prevention of cruelty to Animals. http://www.aspca.org/site/PageServer?pagename=cruelty_pitbull. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
^ World Almanac and Book of Facts. Newspaper Enterprise Association (Doubleday). 1985.
^ "The Kennel Club's top twenty of registered breeds". The Kennel Club. http://www.the-kennel-club.org.uk/pressoffice/press_top20.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
^ "UK dog adoption and rescue service". Dogs Blog. http://www.dogsblog.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-05.
^ Lopez, Barry (1978). Of wolves and men. New York: Scribner Classics. p. 320. ISBN 0743249364.
^ a b Serpell, James (1995). The Domestic Dog; its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 267. ISBN 0-521-42537-9.
^ a b Pal SK (January 2005). "Parental care in free-ranging dogs, Canis familiaris". Applied Animal Behaviour Science 90 (1): 31–47. doi:10.1016/j.applanim.2004.08.002.
^ a b A&E Television Networks (1998). Big Dogs, Little Dogs: The companion volume to the A&E special presentation, A Lookout Book, GT Publishing. ISBN 1-57719-353-9 (hardcover).
^ a b c Alderton, David (1984). The Dog, Chartwell Books. ISBN 0-89009-786-0.
^ "Dr. P's Dog Training: Vision in Dogs & People". 1998. http://www.uwsp.edu/psych/dog/LA/davis2.htm. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.
^ "Catalyst: Dogs' Eyes". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2003-09-25. http://www.abc.net.au/catalyst/stories/s953902.htm. Retrieved on 2006-11-26.
^ a b Elert, Glenn; Timothy Condon (2003). "Frequency Range of Dog Hearing" (in English). The Physics Factbook. http://hypertextbook.com/facts/2003/TimCondon.shtml. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "How well do dogs and other animals hear". http://www.lsu.edu/deafness/HearingRange.html.
^ a b "Dog Sense of Hearing" (in English). seefido.com. http://www.seefido.com/html/dog_sense_of_hearing.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "How Good is a Dog's Sense of Smell?" (in English). peteducation.com. http://www.peteducation.com/article.cfm?c=2+1553&aid=1098. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ a b "Understanding a Dog's Sense of Smell" (in English). Dummies.com. http://www.dummies.com/WileyCDA/DummiesArticle/id-5324.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "The Dog’s Sense of" (in English) (PDF). Alabama and Auburn Universities. http://www.aces.edu/pubs/docs/U/UNP-0066/UNP-0066.pdf. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "Smell" (in English). nhm.org. 6 May 2004. http://www.nhm.org/exhibitions/dogs/formfunction/smell.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ a b Klappenbach, Laura (2008). "What is Counter Shading?" (in English). About.com. http://animals.about.com/od/zoology12/f/countershading.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ a b Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). "Coat Types, Colours and Markings" (in English). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Paragon Publishing. pp. 20–23.
^ "The Case for Tail Docking" (in English). cdb.org. http://www.cdb.org/case4dock.htm. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "Bourbonnais pointer or ‘short tail pointer’". http://www.braquedubourbonnais.info/en/tail-genetics.htm.
^ "The Story of Old Drum". Cedarcroft Farm Bed & Breakfast - Warrensburg, MO. http://www.almostheaven-golden-retriever-rescue.org/old-drum.html. Retrieved on 2006-11-29.
^ "Sexual Maturity - Spay and Neuter" (in English). Buffalo.com. http://www.pets911.com/hosted/buffalo/puppy/article.php?num=11045. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "Normal gestation in dogs" (in English). http://www.cpvh.com/Articles/36.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ "HSUS Pet Overpopulation Estimates" (in English). The Humane Society of the United States. http://www.hsus.org/pets/issues_affecting_our_pets/pet_overpopulation_and_ownership_statistics/hsus_pet_overpopulation_
estimates.html. Retrieved on 2008-10-22.
^ Heidenberger E, Unshelm J (1990). "Changes in the behavior of dogs after castration" (in German). Tierärztliche Praxis 18 (1): 69–75. PMID 2326799.
^ "Top 10 reasons to spay/neuter your pet". American Society for Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. http://www.aspca.org/site/PageServer?pagename=adopt_spayneuter. Retrieved on 2007-05-16.
^ Arnold S (1997). "Urinary incontinence in castrated bitches. Part 1: Significance, clinical aspects and etiopathogenesis" (in German). Schweiz. Arch. Tierheilkd. 139 (6): 271–6. PMID 9411733.
^ Johnston SD, Kamolpatana K, Root-Kustritz MV, Johnston GR (2000). "Prostatic disorders in the dog". Anim. Reprod. Sci. 60-61: 405–15. doi:10.1016/S0378-4320(00)00101-9. PMID 10844211.
^ Morrison, Wallace B. (1998). Cancer in Dogs and Cats (1st ed.). Williams and Wilkins. ISBN 0-683-06105-4.
^ Cerundolo R, Court MH, Hao Q, Michel KE (2004). "Identification and concentration of soy phytoestrogens in commercial dog foods". Am. J. Vet. Res. 65 (5): 592–6. doi:10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.592. PMID 15141878.
^ Mahlow, Jane C. (1999). "Estimation of the proportions of dogs and cats that are surgically sterilized". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (excerpt quoted by spayusa.org)
215: 640–643. http://www.spayusa.org/main_directory/02-facts_and_education/stats_surveys/javma_articles/02dogs-cats-sterilized.asp. Retrieved on 30 November 2006.
^ Williams, Tully. Working Sheep Dogs.
^ Serpell, James. "Origins of the dog: domestication and early history". The Domestic Dog.
^ "A Beginner's Guide to Dog Shows". American Kennel Club. http://www.akc.org/events/conformation/beginners.cfm. Retrieved on 2008-10-30.
^ Gedon, Trisha (2006-05-25). "Summer heat can be tough on pets". Division of Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Oklahoma State University. http://www2.dasnr.okstate.edu/index.php?option=com_
content&task=view&id=257&Itemid=103. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
^ Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary Association Scientific Committee. 2004. Purebred Dog Health Survey. Retrieved July 5, 2007
^ a b Proschowsky, H. F., H. Rugbjerg, and A. K. Ersbell. 2003. Mortality of purebred and mixed-breed dogs in Denmark. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 58:63-74. Online abstract.
^ a b Michell, A. R., 1999. Longevity of British breeds of dog and its relationships with sex, size, cardiovascular variables and disease. Veterinary Record 145:625-629. Online abstract.
^ a b c d Dog Longevity Web Site, Breed Data page. Compiled by K. M. Cassidy. Retrieved July 8, 2007
^ Patronek, G. J., D. J. Waters, and L. T. Glickman, 1997. Comparative longevity of pet dogs and humans: Implications for gerontology research. The Journals of Gerontology, 1997, 52A, 3: Health Module p. B171-B178. Online abstract.
^ Dr. Kelly M. Cassidy (2007). "Dog Longevity". http://users.pullman.com/lostriver/weight_and_lifespan.htm. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
^ Australian Cattle Dogs Online- Retrieved July 17, 2007
^ a b AnAge entry for Canis familiaris AnAge Database. Human Aging Genomic Resources. Retrieved July 17, 2007
^ L. David Mech & Luigi Boitani (2001). Wolves: Behaviour, Ecology and Conservation. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 448. ISBN 0226516962. http://www.amazon.com/Wolves-Behavior-Conservation-David-Mech/dp/0226516962.
^ Graves, Will (2007). Wolves in Russia: Anxiety throughout the ages. Calgary: Detselig Enterprises. p. 222. ISBN 1550593323. http://www.wolvesinrussia.com/.
^ "Wolf at my door". BBC. http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/animals/features/145big.shtml. Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
^ "For coyotes, pets are prey". Greg Hardesty. Orange County Register. http://www.ocregister.com/ocr/sections/news/focus_in_depth/article_508026.php. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
^ Jonathan & Angela Scott (2006). Big Cat Diary: Leopard. London: Collins. p. 108. ISBN 0007211813.
^ Perry, Richard (1965). The World of the Tiger. p. 260. ASIN: B0007DU2IU.
^ "Striped Hyaena Hyaena (Hyaena) hyaena (Linnaeus, 1758)". IUCN Species Survival Commission Hyaenidae Specialist Group. May. http://www.hyaena.ge/striped.htm. Retrieved on 2008-05-21.
^ Small animal internal medicine, RW Nelson, Couto page 107
^ a b "Why dogs eat grass.". http://www.wonderquest.com/DogsGrass.htm.
^ "Animal Poison Control FAQ: Why is chocolate bad for dogs?". ASPCA. http://www.aspca.org/site/PageServer?pagename=pro_apcc_faq#chocolate. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
^ "ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center Issues Nationwide Update: Raisins and Grapes Can Be Toxic To Dogs". ASPCA Press Releases. American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.
^ Laurinda Morris, DVM, citing the ASPCA Poison Control Center. "Raisin the Alarm". snopes.com. http://www.snopes.com/critters/crusader/raisins.asp. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
^ Sharon L. Peters (March 19, 2007). "Popular sweetener is toxic for dogs". http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/2007-03-18-xylitol-sweetener_N.htm. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
^ Susan Muller Esneault, DVM. "Macadamia Nut Toxicosis in the Dog". critterology.com. http://www.critterology.com/macadamia_nut_toxicosis_in_the_dog-157.html. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
^ "Alcohol Poisoning in Pets". my-dog.info. http://www.my-dog.info/dog_diseases/alcohol_poisoning.asp. Retrieved on 2008-08-31.
^ Duncan, K. L.; W. R. Hare and W. B. Buck (1997-01-01). "Malignant hyperthermia-like reaction secondary to ingestion of hops in five dogs". Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 210 (1): 51–4. PMID 8977648.
^ "Why do dogs eat poop.". http://www.petlibrary.co.uk/dog-care/why-do-dogs-eact-poop.html.
^ Stowe CM, Nelson R, Werdin R, et al: Zinc phosphide poisoning in dogs. JAVMA 173:270, 1978
^ "Recall Information" (HTML). Menu Foods Income Fund. http://www.menufoods.com/recall/index.html. Retrieved on 2008-03-08.
^ "Animal Cruelty". pet-abuse.com. http://www.pet-abuse.com/pages/animal_cruelty.php. Retrieved on 2006-11-30.
^ Arthurs, Clare (2001-12-31). "Vietnam's dog meat tradition". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/1735647.stm. Retrieved on 2006-10-10.
^ Stefan Gates, "Stefan's diary: South Korea", Cooking in the Danger Zone, BBC Two, May 1, 2007.
Abrantes, Roger (1999). Dogs Home Alone. Wakan Tanka, 46 pages. ISBN 0-9660484-2-3 (paperback).
A&E Television Networks (1998). Big Dogs, Little Dogs: The companion volume to the A&E special presentation, A Lookout Book, GT Publishing. ISBN 1-57719-353-9 (hardcover).
Alderton, David (1984). The Dog, Chartwell Books. ISBN 0-89009-786-0.
Bloch, Günther. Die Pizza-Hunde (in German), 2007, Franckh-Kosmos-Verlags GmbH & Co. KG, Stuttgart,ISBN 9783440109861
Brewer, Douglas J. (2002) Dogs in Antiquity: Anubis to Cerberus: The Origins of the Domestic Dog, Aris & Phillips ISBN 0-85668-704-9
Coppinger, Raymond and Lorna Coppinger (2002). Dogs: A New Understanding of Canine Origin, Behavior and Evolution, University of Chicago Press ISBN 0-226-11563-1
Cunliffe, Juliette (2004). The Encyclopedia of Dog Breeds. Parragon Publishing. ISBN 0-7525-8276-3.
Derr, Mark (2004). Dog's Best Friend: Annals of the Dog-Human Relationship. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-14280-9
Donaldson, Jean (1997). The Culture Clash. James & Kenneth Publishers. ISBN 1-888047-05-4 (paperback).
Fogle, Bruce, DVM (2000). The New Encyclopedia of the Dog. Doring Kindersley (DK). ISBN 0-7894-6130-7.
Grenier, Roger (2000). The Difficulty of Being a Dog. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30828-6
Milani, Myrna M. (1986). The Body Language and Emotion of Dogs: A practical guide to the Physical and Behavioral Displays Owners and Dogs Exchange and How to Use Them to Create a Lasting Bond, William
Morrow, 283 pages. ISBN 0-688-12841-6 (trade paperback).
Pfaffenberger, Clare (1971). New Knowledge of Dog Behavior. Wiley, ISBN 0-87605-704-0 (hardcover); Dogwise Publications, 2001, 208 pages, ISBN 1-929242-04-2 (paperback).
Shook, Larry (1995). "Breeders Can Hazardous to Health", The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog, Chapter Two, pp. 13–34. Ballantine, 130 pages, ISBN 0-345-38439-3 (mass market paperback);
Globe Pequot, 1992, ISBN 1-55821-140-3 (hardcover; this is much cheaper should you buy).
Shook, Larry (1995). The Puppy Report: How to Select a Healthy, Happy Dog, Chapter Four, "Hereditary Problems in Purebred Dogs", pp. 57–72. Ballantine, 130 pages, ISBN 0-345-38439-3 (mass market paperback);
Globe Pequot, 1992, ISBN 1-55821-140-3 (hardcover; this is much cheaper should you buy).
Thomas, Elizabeth Marshall (1993). The Hidden Life of Dogs (hardcover), A Peter Davison Book, Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-66958-8.
Trumler, Eberhard. Mit dem Hund auf du; Zum Verständnis seines Wesens und Verhaltens (in German); 4. Auflage Januar 1996; R. Piper GmbH & Co. KG, München
Small animal internal medicine, RW Nelson, Couto page 107
Types List of types · Companion dog · Lap dogs · Designer dog · Poodle crosses · Guard dogs · Bull and Terrier · Bandogs · Fighting dogs · Hunting dogs · Bird dogs · Gun dogs · Water dogs · Retrievers · Setters ·
Breeds List of breeds · List of named crossbreeds (hybrids) · Breed Groups · Ancient breeds · Conformation · Breeding · Crossbred (hybrid) · Mixed-breed (Mutt) · Origin · Purebred · Rare breeds
Work Assistance dog · Attack dog · Detection dog · Guard dog · Guide dog · Hearing dog · Herding dog · Hunting dog · Pet dog · Police dog · Search and rescue dog · Service dog · Sled dog · Therapy dog · War dog
interaction Animal testing · Baiting · Breed-specific legislation · Communication · Dog park · Dog Sports · Intelligence · Therapy · Training · Fear of dogs · Dog licence · Dog food · Dogs in religion